Introduction to Therapeutic Areas



Therapeutic Area

Description and Examples

Cardiology/Vascular Diseases

Diseases having to do with the structure and function of the heart and blood vessels.
Studies in these areas include:
heart failure,
coronary artery disease,
high cholesterol,
blood clots,
circulation disorders, and others.

Dental and Oral Health

This area is related to the teeth, jaw, face and its structures.

Studies in these areas include:

acute and chronic dental pain,

oral cavity cancer,

oral facial pain,

oral medicine, and saliva and salivary gland dysfunction.


Fields concerned with skin disorders and the reconstruction or replacement of deformed, damaged, or lost parts of the body. Also concerns cosmetic surgery.

Studies in these areas include:


congenital skin diseases,

genital herpes,

genital warts,



skin wounds,

athlete’s foot,

venous leg ulcers, and others.


Field relating to hormone-manufacturing glands such as the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, as well as the ovary and testis, the placenta, and the pancreas.

Studies in this area include:

diabetes and diabetes-related disorders,

diet and nutrition,

hormone-replacement therapy,


obesity, and others.


The study of the gastrointestinal organs and diseases relating to them. This includes any part of the digestive tract from mouth to anus, liver, biliary tract, and the pancreas.

Studies in this area include:


Crohn’s disease,


gallbladder disease,

heartburn, hemorrhoids,

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS),


liver disease,

stomach cancer, and others.


Genetic Disease

Field related to the study of genetic disease, which are inherited, congenital (one is born with the disease) malfunctions of the genes/chromosomes.

Studies in this area include:

Down’s syndrome,


cystic fibrosis,

sickle cell and more.


Field regarding blood, blood-forming tissues, and the diseases associated with them.

Studies in this area include:


blood clots,

bone marrow transplant,


platelet disorders,

red-cell disorders,

T-cell lymphoma,

vitamin deficiencies,

white-cell disorders, and others.

Hepatology (Liver, Pancreatic, Gall Bladder)

This is the field of illness affecting the liver, pancreas, gall bladder and biliary tract.

This includes liver disease,



cirrhosis and more.


This area covers malfunctions of the immune system, either over stimulation or under stimulation of the normal immune system processes.

Some examples include:






inflammatory bowel disease,

colitis and multiple sclerosis.

Infections and Infectious Diseases

Diseases caused by the invasion of a pathogen, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. These are typically contagious diseases and include: AIDS/HIV,


 common cold,


 sexually transmitted diseases,




Field having to do with the muscles and the bones of the body. Studies in this area include: aging,

 bone density,

 bone fractures,

 chronic back pain,

 hip replacement,



 rheumatoid arthritis,

 spinal cord injuries,

 and others.


The studies and the treatment of diseases of the kidney and the urinary tract. Studies in these areas include: bladder cancer,


 kidney disease,

 kidney stones,



 renal cell carcinoma,

 urinary tract infections,

 and others.


Field concerning the nervous system,

 especially the brain,

 peripheral nerves,

 and spinal cord. Studies in this field include: Alzheimer’s Disease,

 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),

 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome,

 Huntington’s Disease,


 memory loss,

 migraine headaches,

 multiple sclerosis,

 muscular dystrophy,

 Parkinson’s Disease,


 Tourette’s Syndrome,

 and others.


Research pertaining to the care of women during pregnancy and childbirth,  as well as to the study of the women’s reproductive system in general. Studies in these areas include: contraception,

 hormone-replacement therapy,


 menstrual disorders,

 ovarian cysts,



 yeast infections,

 and others.


The medical,  surgical,  and radiation treatment of tumors (cancerous,  especially). Studies in this area include most types of cancer and treatment thereof.


Field concerning the eye and eye diseases. Studies in this area include: cataracts,

 eye infections,


 macular degeneration,

 near-sighted corrective surgery,

 and others.

Otolaryngology (Ear, Nose, Throat)

Also known as ENT (ears, nose,  and throat),

 this is the study of diseases involving the ears and the larynx (organ that helps produce vocal sounds and serves as an air passageway, located in the neck/throat). Studies in this area include: allergy,

 ear infections,



 sinus infections,

 strep throat,

 and others.


The medical treatment and study of children and infants, respectively. Studies in these areas include: anorexia,


 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),

 birth defects,

 cancers in children,

 child depression,

 growth deficiencies,

 juvenile diabetes,


 strep throat,


 and others.

Pulmonary/Respiratory Diseases

Diseases having to do with the lungs and/or breathing. Studies in these areas include: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS),




 cystic fibrosis,


 lung disease,


 sinus infections,

 smoking cessation,

 and others.


The field relating to joints, tendons, muscles, ligaments, and associated structures. Studies in this area include: arthritis,



 rheumatic fever,

 rheumatoid arthritis,

 and others.


This is the field of the male and female urinary tract and the male reproductive system. Conditions include urinary tract infections,

 prostate disorders and erectile dysfunction.


This area investigates preventative and therapeutic vaccines.